While SE does not have an automated procedure for this kind of thing, the power is well within the reach of our userbase (nearly regardless of reputation).
Posts like this (with swear words, or spam), can be reviewed by the community and with enough of the proper flag, automatically deleted.
This is SE's first line of defense against spam and offensive content. And, at least on this particular site (where we take a harsher tone on swear words than most of the rest of the network, given our intended audience), this kind of post should be met with immediate offensive votes.
After 6 of these votes the post is deleted, hidden (10k users have to view rev history to see it's contents), and the user is docked 100 reputation.
Simply put, deleting content (especially answers), is just too hard and too severe for an automated process. There are some cleanup scripts that delete old, abandoned, poorly regarded questions, but none similar for answers (and these scripts are not content dependent, they are vote, edit and closure dependent). SE's automation does very little reviewing of post contents since that is a rather difficult task for a computer (but a simple one for humans!).
Keep in mind that this is the same engine that runs SO and the other SE sites, so a change that deleted short posts with swear words would not be a one size fits all solution (consider that there is a computer language whose name is a swear, and that many swear processors fall victim to clbuttic mistakes).
Further note, meta does have a short answer deletion process, it will actually delete and automatically convert to comment posts under a certain character limit.