I do not think this question can be answered, and I flagged it as too broad, but the flag was rejected. As I explained in some comments:
I think this is too broad as each diocese could have different rules (and many definitely do). The diocese where I live unofficially hates another diocese in the country. If you don't train at the official seminary you might be forced to do at least a year there, but other diocese don't have similar restrictions.
There is The Ordinal but I don't think it contains anything about education. (And each diocese/province could even have it's own version of The Ordinal too.) You're right that each local Anglican church has to submit to a central authority, but that authority is the diocese, and they don't agree about the issue of education. Western countries probably all require tertiary education, while countries like PNG don't. This question could be answered with each answer giving how it is in their own situation, but any overall answer would be broad.
Remember there is no "Anglican church". There are Anglican dioceses and provinces, and an association (=club) of them called the Anglican Communion. But it is now fractured and many Anglican dioceses are not part of it.
I just spent quite a bit of time and could not find in either the Australian prayer book, Australian constitution and canons or my local diocese's constitution and canons any rule about educational requirements. I know they exist because another website describes them, but I can't see where they're required. But I also know other provinces and dioceses will have different standards.
- If you have vote-to-close privileges, please consider voting.
- If you think this can be answered in a not-too-broad way, can you explain how in an answer to this meta question?