There is quite a bit of information available on meta already. Here is one place to start:
What makes a good focused question?
And in the case of a closed questions:
Tips for editing a question to make it suitable for re-opening
No there is not an exact template because questions come in all sorts and sizes, but having in mind the scope of this site and some of the potential question scopes as outlined above will certainly make it easier to get started. If you have in mind where you are targeting your question and what you want to get out of it in the end, the exact wording and format are not nearly as important.
I would go so far as to say that an exact set of templates would actually be counter-productive. A few assorted examples is one thing, but a "fill in the blanks here" type of form is going to net us a rise in poorly thought out questions where people forced the format without thinking through the material just so they could say "but I followed the rules to the letter". We are more than willing to help people formulate questions if they are willing to put out the effort in return, but just having people fill in the blanks won't bring in better questions.